NAD+ Supplements: NMN vs NR Health Benefits, Risk And Dosage

NAD+ Supplements: NMN vs NR Health Benefits, Risk And Dosage

Are you ready to take charge of your health and unlock the potential of your body's cellular energy? If so, it's time to explore the remarkable benefits of NAD+ supplements. NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a vital coenzyme found in every living cell, playing a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and cellular communication. Our NAD+ levels naturally decline as we age, impacting our overall vitality and contributing to the ageing process. However, with the advent of NAD+ supplements, we now have a powerful tool to replenish and support our cellular energy levels. In this article, we will delve into the science behind NAD+, understand how it works in our bodies, and explore its numerous health benefits. Get ready to unlock the potential of your cells and discover why NAD+ supplements are taking the health and wellness world by storm!


Dr. Ayesha Tufail

Our Certified Medical Doctor, Researcher and Top-Rated Medical Writer on Upwork. Dr. Ayesha Tufail has more than 10 years of experience working as a General Practitioner. Her areas of research include Stem Cell Therapy, Herbal Health Supplements & Adult ADHD.

You can get in touch with Dr. Ayesha via her LinkedIn account linked at the end of this page.

What is NAD?

NAD, short for Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, is a crucial molecule found in all living cells. It serves as a coenzyme that participates in various metabolic reactions in the body, particularly those related to energy production. NAD exists in two forms: NAD+ (oxidised form) and NADH (reduced form). NAD+ plays a vital role in cellular processes such as glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, enabling the conversion of nutrients into usable energy. Additionally, NAD+ is involved in DNA repair and signalling pathways that regulate cell survival and ageing. NAD+ levels naturally decline with age, but supplementation with NAD+ precursors like NMN and NR can help support cellular health and energy production.

Natural Ways to Increase NAD Levels:

There are several natural ways to potentially increase NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) levels in the body. Here are some strategies:

  • Diet:

Consuming foods rich in NAD precursors, such as niacin (vitamin B3), can help support NAD synthesis. Examples include fish, poultry, meat, legumes, nuts, and seeds. Foods containing other nutrients like tryptophan, which can be converted into NAD, may also be beneficial. Good sources include turkey, eggs, cheese, and soybeans.

  • Exercise:

Regular physical exercise has been linked to increased NAD levels. Both endurance and resistance training can potentially stimulate NAD production.

  • Intermittent Fasting:

Practising time-restricted feeding or intermittent fasting may help increase NAD levels. These approaches involve limiting the eating window to specific hours of the day, allowing the body to utilise NAD more efficiently.

  • Managing Stress:

Chronic stress and inflammation can deplete NAD levels. Engaging in stress-reducing activities like meditation, yoga, and deep breathing exercises may support NAD preservation.

  • Sun Exposure:

Limited sun exposure, especially in the morning, can stimulate NAD production in the skin due to the activation of vitamin D synthesis.

  • Sleep Quality:

Prioritising quality sleep can promote NAD synthesis and overall cellular health.

While these strategies may help support NAD levels, it's important to note that their direct impact on NAD+ availability in the body may vary among individuals

How NAD Supplements Work?

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) supplements work by providing the body with precursors that can be converted into NAD+ (the oxidised form of NAD) within cells. The two primary precursors used in NAD supplementation are Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN).

Once ingested, NR and NMN are absorbed by cells and converted into NAD+ through specific enzymatic reactions. These precursors bypass some of the steps required for NAD+ synthesis, making them more efficient in increasing NAD+ levels compared to other methods.

Elevated NAD+ levels are essential because NAD+ acts as a coenzyme involved in various cellular processes. It plays a crucial role in energy metabolism by facilitating the transfer of electrons during energy production pathways like glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. By increasing NAD+ levels, NAD supplements support optimal cellular energy production, potentially enhancing overall energy levels and combating fatigue.

Furthermore, NAD+ is involved in DNA repair mechanisms, specifically through the activation of enzymes called PARPs (Poly-ADP ribose polymerases). These enzymes help repair damaged DNA strands and maintain genomic integrity. Increasing NAD+ levels through supplementation can enhance DNA repair capacity and support cellular health.

Additionally, NAD+ is involved in the activation of sirtuins, a class of proteins that regulate various cellular processes, including ageing, stress response, and longevity. Sirtuins play a role in maintaining the balance between energy production and cellular repair. By activating sirtuins, NAD supplements potentially support healthy ageing, cellular rejuvenation, and improved metabolic health.

It's important to note that while NAD supplementation has shown promise in preclinical and some clinical studies, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and the extent of its benefits in humans. Consulting with a healthcare professional is advisable before starting any new supplement regimen to ensure it aligns with individual health goals and needs.


Health Benefits of NAD Supplements:

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) supplements have gained attention in recent years, and research suggests a range of potential health benefits. Here are some detailed health benefits of NAD supplements, based on recent research:


Energy Production and Metabolism:

NAD+ is a crucial coenzyme involved in energy production pathways, such as glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. By increasing NAD+ levels through supplementation, individuals may experience improved energy metabolism, enhanced mitochondrial function, and increased ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production, leading to higher energy levels and reduced fatigue.

Anti-Aging and Cellular Rejuvenation: 

NAD+ plays a significant role in DNA repair mechanisms and activates enzymes called sirtuins, which are involved in regulating cellular processes related to aging. Research suggests that NAD+ supplementation may support DNA repair, slow down cellular ageing, and promote longevity.

Neuroprotection and Cognitive Health:

    NAD+ is essential for maintaining neuronal health and function. It supports brain health, cognitive function, and may protect against age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Research indicates that NAD+ supplementation may enhance brain resilience, improve cognitive performance, and potentially mitigate the risk of neurological disorders.


    Metabolic Health and Weight Management:

      NAD+ is involved in regulating metabolic processes, including glucose and lipid metabolism. By supporting optimal NAD+ levels, supplementation may help regulate blood sugar levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and promote healthy weight management.


      Preliminary studies suggest a potential link between NAD+ supplementation and metabolic benefits.

      Cardiovascular Health: 

        NAD+ plays a role in maintaining cardiovascular health by supporting endothelial function, reducing inflammation, and improving mitochondrial function in the heart. 


        Some research suggests that NAD+ supplementation may contribute to cardiovascular protection and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.


        Exercise Performance and Muscle Function: 

          NAD+ is involved in cellular energy production and muscle function. 

          Supplementing with NAD+ precursors may enhance exercise performance, improve muscle strength, and aid in muscle recovery.

          Skin Health:

            NAD+ supplements have the potential for anti-aging skin care. NAD+ supports cellular repair, DNA maintenance, and mitochondrial function.

            By boosting NAD+ levels, these supplements may protect against oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and promote collagen synthesis.


            These effects can contribute to firmer, smoother, and more youthful-looking skin. However, further research is needed to determine the specific effects and optimal usage of NAD+ supplements in promoting anti-aging benefits for the skin



            Potential Role of NAD Supplements in Different Diseases:

              NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) plays a potential role in various diseases. In neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, NAD+ may support neuronal health. NAD+ supplementation has shown promise in metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease by improving glucose metabolism and lipid regulation. In cardiovascular diseases like heart failure and ischemia-reperfusion injury, NAD+ may enhance cardiovascular function and protect against oxidative stress. NAD+ has also been explored for its potential in age-related disorders and cancer treatment. However, further research is needed to establish the efficacy and safety of NAD+ supplementation in these diseases. 

              It's important to note that while promising, the field of NAD+ research is still emerging, and more human studies are needed to fully understand the extent of these health benefits. It's advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen to ensure it aligns with individual health goals and needs.

              NAD Supplements: NMN vs. NR:

              Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) and Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) are two popular NAD+ precursors that have gained attention for their potential health benefits. Both supplements aim to increase NAD+ levels in the body, supporting cellular energy production and various physiological processes. However, there are some differences between NMN and NR in terms of their structure and metabolism.

              NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide):

              NMN is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide. It is converted into NAD+ through a series of enzymatic reactions. NMN has shown promising results in preclinical studies, demonstrating its ability to boost NAD+ levels, enhance mitochondrial function, and support healthy ageing. It has been associated with improvements in metabolism, cognitive function, and cardiovascular health.

              NR (Nicotinamide Riboside):

              NR is a form of vitamin B3 and a precursor to NAD+. It is converted into NAD+ through a different metabolic pathway than NMN. NR has also shown potential in increasing NAD+ levels and has been studied for its effects on metabolism, neuroprotection, and cardiovascular health. It has been associated with improvements in mitochondrial function, exercise performance, and glucose metabolism.

              Which one is better?

              Both NMN and NR have demonstrated efficacy in increasing NAD+ levels and supporting various health benefits. However, it's important to note that direct head-to-head comparisons between NMN and NR in human studies are limited. The effectiveness of each supplement may depend on factors such as individual metabolism, dosage, and overall health status. Consulting with a healthcare professional and considering personal preferences can help determine which supplement may be more suitable for individual needs.

              Recommended Dosage:

              The recommended doses of NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide) and NR (Nicotinamide Riboside) can vary depending on individual needs, health status, and the specific product being used. It's important to follow the manufacturer's instructions and consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen. However, here are some general guidelines regarding the doses:


              • The typical recommended dose of NMN ranges from 250 mg to 1,000 mg per day.
              • It is often divided into multiple smaller doses throughout the day for optimal absorption and sustained NAD+ elevation.
              • Some individuals may start with a lower dose and gradually increase it based on their response and tolerance.


              • The typical recommended dose of NR ranges from 150 mg to 1,000 mg per day.
              • Similar to NMN, it is often divided into multiple smaller doses for better absorption and sustained effects.
              • Starting with a lower dose and gradually increasing it is advisable, especially for those new to NR supplementation.

              It's worth noting that the optimal dosage for NMN and NR is still an area of ongoing research. Additionally, individual responses to these supplements may vary, and further studies are needed to establish the most effective and safe dosage ranges. Consulting with a healthcare professional who is familiar with your medical history and current health condition can provide personalised guidance on the appropriate dosage for NMN or NR supplementation.

              Side Effects of NAD Supplements:

              NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) supplements are generally well-tolerated, and side effects are rare. However, some individuals may experience mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, or stomach discomfort.

              These side effects are usually temporary and resolve on their own. It's important to follow the recommended dosage and instructions provided by the manufacturer or healthcare professional. If any adverse effects occur or persist, it is advisable to discontinue the use of NAD supplements and consult with a healthcare professional. Long-term safety data on NAD supplementation is limited, and further research is needed to fully understand potential side effects.

              Final Thoughts:

              In conclusion, NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) supplements, including NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide) and NR (Nicotinamide Riboside), offer exciting potential for supporting various aspects of health and well-being. These supplements have shown promise in enhancing cellular function, promoting energy production, and supporting overall vitality.

              If you're interested in harnessing the potential benefits of NAD supplementation, we invite you to explore our website and discover our high-quality NR, NMN and NADH supplements. With our products, you can take proactive steps towards optimising your health. Don't miss out on the opportunity to enhance your well-being. Visit our site today and embark on a journey towards a healthier and more vibrant life.


              Medical Disclaimer: While we have delve into the research available on the health benefits of these awesome supplements we offer, this is for informative purposes only and shouldn’t be taken as medical advice. Those who have any health-related queries should reach out to a medical professional. These statements have not been evaluated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. This article is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


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              3. Hou, Y., Wei, Y., Lautrup, S., Yang, B., Wang, Y., Cordonnier, S., Mattson, M. P., Croteau, D. L., & Bohr, V. A. (2021). NAD+ supplementation reduces neuroinflammation and cell senescence in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease via cGAS–STING. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(37).

              4. Nadeeshani, H., Li, J., Ying, T., Zhang, B., & Lu, J. (2022). Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) as an anti-aging health product – Promises and safety concerns. Journal of Advanced Research, 37, 267-278.

              5. Arenas-Jal, M., Suñé-Negre, J., & García-Montoya, E. (2020). Therapeutic potential of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). European Journal of Pharmacology, 879, 173158.

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